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A Brief History of Bluetooth Technology and Its Features

Bluetooth technology has revolutionized the way we live and work. By allowing devices to communicate wirelessly, BlueTooth has made it possible for us to be more connected than ever before.

Bluetooth is commonly used in speakers, headsets, keyboards, mice, and printers. Here's a look at how Bluetooth technology works and how it can help us stay connected. This short-range wireless communication protocol allows us to connect our devices without the need for wires or cables.

The Evolution of Bluetooth Technology

Bluetooth technology has revolutionized the way we interact with our devices. Bluetooth has been around for over two decades and has undergone several evolutions to become the reliable and useful technology it is today. The technology was first developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson, who were working for Ericsson at the time.

The very first Bluetooth devices were released in 1998. These early devices were large and bulky and had a short range. They were also very slow, with a data transfer rate of just 1 Mbps.

Despite these limitations, the early Bluetooth devices were popular because they offered a much more convenient way to connect devices than the alternatives at the time. It could connect multiple devices over short distances and has low power consumption.

Bluetooth Addresses and Names

Every Bluetooth device has a unique 48-bit address, which is commonly abbreviated as BD-ADDR. The BD-ADDR is a unique Bluetooth device address, akin to the MAC address of a network device. Bluetooth devices can also be given user-friendly names to easily identify them.

The Connection Procedure

A Bluetooth connection between two devices involves three progressive stages:


If two Bluetooth devices are completely unaware of one another, one must do an inquiry to try to locate the other. One device sends the enquiry request, and any device listening for such a request will answer with its address, as well as maybe its identity and other information.

Paging (Connecting)

The process of connecting two Bluetooth devices is known as paging. Each device must know the address of the other before this connection can be established.


After completing the paging procedure, a device enters the connection state. A device can be actively engaged or put into a low-power sleep mode while connected.

Bonding and Pairing

Two Bluetooth devices are instantaneously linked together. When two devices are paired, they instantly join when they come closer within range. You might have experienced that when you switch on your PC, for example, your wireless mouse and keyboard immediately connect to the system. There are no UI interactions or commands required. When devices join, they exchange addresses, names, and saved profiles. The devices will include a secret key that will allow them to bond in the future when they come together.

Pairing requires an authentication process in which a user certifies the connection between devices. Often, pairing entails matching numeric codes. When using equipment with no user interface, such as headphones, pairing can be as simple as a button click.

Bluetooth Profiles: What Are They?

Bluetooth can control a wide range of devices, and there are Bluetooth profiles dedicated to each function. Let's look at some Bluetooth profiles that can help you transfer files and control devices remotely.

What is a Bluetooth Profile?

In Bluetooth, profiles describe the permitted functions for devices that are connected.

For example, we have many Bluetooth devices such as headphones, mice and keyboards for computers, and so on, each with a completely distinct function. Various profiles manage different functions to transfer data and aid the intended function.

Let's look at some of the most significant Bluetooth profiles:

Advanced Audio Distribution Profile

This profile enables the transmission of high-quality stereo audio. Your Bluetooth headphones and car stereo count on this. Before the advent of A2DP, Bluetooth audio was fairly noisy and only appropriate for phone calls.

Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)

This profile supports remote control operations such as music playback, pause, channel flipping, and so on. This is used with headphones and smart TV remote controls to switch channels, control the volume, and many other functions.

Handsfree Profile (HFP)

Needless to mention, this profile facilitates calling from a Bluetooth device. It's a useful requirement for automobile infotainment systems that support mobile phone calls, hands-free.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Bluetooth FTP allows users to transfer files between Bluetooth devices.

Human Interface Device Protocol

This profile connects Bluetooth accessories such as keyboards and mice to the computer system.


Bluetooth technology is a wireless communications technology that lets electronic devices exchange data wirelessly using radio waves. Bluetooth technology is used by devices such as cell phones, cameras, keyboards, mice, and watches to pair and communicate with one another while they are nearby. Bluetooth is a continually growing technology, and it will be interesting to observe how it evolves in the next few years.



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